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光储一体化并网发电系统的惯量阻尼机理分析
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作者单位:

1.陕西科技大学电气与控制工程学院,陕西省西安市 710021;2.南京工程学院自动化学院,江苏省南京市 211167;3.湖南工业大学电气与信息工程学院,湖南省株洲市 412007;4.香港理工大学电机工程系,香港 999077

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金资助项目(51707091);陕西省工业科技攻关项目(2015GY038)。


Analysis on Inertia and Damping Mechanism of Grid-connected Power Generation System Integrated with Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems
Author:
Affiliation:

1.School of Electrical and Control Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021, China;2.School of Automation, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, China;3.College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412007, China;4.Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 999077, China

Fund Project:

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51707091) and Shaanxi Provincial Industrial Science and Technology Research Project (No. 2015GY038).

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    摘要:

    以光储一体化并网发电系统为研究对象,利用多时间尺度建模的思想,聚焦于影响系统频率动态特性的主要时间尺度——直流电压时间尺度,建立了用于系统惯量阻尼特性分析的直流电压时间尺度动态模型。在此模型的基础上,利用电气转矩分析法从物理机制层面上分析了影响系统惯量效应、阻尼能力以及同步特性的主要因素及其作用规律。研究结果表明:系统的动态特性由其控制参数、结构参数以及稳态工作点参数共同决定。直流电压母线控制环中的比例控制器、积分控制器分别影响系统的惯性效应和同步特性;储能装置中的频率下垂控制主要影响系统的阻尼能力;工作在最大功率点跟踪模式的光伏变流器则无法影响系统的动态特性。此外,系统的动态特性还受到线路阻抗、直流母线电容等结构参数以及系统交/直流母线电压等级、稳态运行功率(功角)等稳态工作点参数的共同影响。仿真和实验结果验证了上述分析结论的正确性。

    Abstract:

    The grid-connected power generation system integrated with photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage systems (ESSs) is taken as the research object, and multiple time scales are used in the modeling ideas. Focusing on the main time-scale affecting the dynamic characteristics of system frequency—the DC voltage time scale, this paper develops a dynamic model of DC voltage time scale for the analysis of the system inertia and damping characteristics. On the basis of this model, the electric torque analysis method is used to analyze the main factors and their action laws on the inertia effect, damping capacity and synchronization characteristics from the physical mechanism level. The research results show that the dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by its control parameters, structural parameters and steady-state operation point parameters. The inertia effect and synchronization characteristics of the system are respectively affected by the proportional controller and integral controller in the DC bus voltage control loop. The damping capacity of the system is mainly affected by the frequency droop control in the energy storage device. The system dynamic characteristics will not be affected by the PV converter operating in the MPPT mode. In addition, the system dynamic characteristics are also affected by the structural parameters (such as line impedance and DC bus capacitance), the steady-state operation point parameters (such as the AC/DC bus voltage level of the system) and the steady-state operation power (power angle). Finally, the correctness of the above analysis is verified by the simulation and experiment results.

    图1 光储一体化并网发电系统的原理图Fig.1 Schematic diagram of grid-connected power generation system integrated with PV and ESS
    图2 前级Boost变换器的控制框图Fig.2 Block diagram of control for pre-stage Boost converter
    图3 双向DC/DC变换器的控制框图Fig.3 Block diagram of control for bidirectional DC/DC converter
    图4 后级并网逆变器的控制框图Fig.4 Block diagram of control for rear-stage grid-connected inverter
    图5 系统的能量流图Fig.5 Energy flow of the system
    图6 控制参数Kp对系统惯量特性的影响Fig.6 Influence of control parameter Kp on system inertia
    图7 控制参数Kp对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig.7 Influence of control parameter Kp on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图8 加储能装置前后的f和Udc的实验波形Fig.8 Experimental waveforms of f and Udc before and after adding energy storage devices
    图 后级并网逆变器的电路简化图Fig. The circuit simplified diagram of the post-stage grid-connected inverter
    图 基于电网电压定向的并网逆变器矢量图Fig. The vector diagram of grid-connected inverter based on grid voltage orientation
    图 结构参数C对系统惯量特性的影响Fig. Influence of structure parameter C on system inertia characteristics
    图 结构参数C对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of structure parameter C on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 稳态工作点参数Udc0对系统惯量特性的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Udc0 on system inertia characteristics
    图 稳态工作点参数Udc0对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Udc0 on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 控制参数Dp对系统阻尼特性的影响Fig. Influence of control parameter Dp on system damping characteristics
    图 控制参数Dp对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of control parameter Dp on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 结构参数L对系统阻尼特性的影响Fig. Influence of structure parameter L on system damping characteristics
    图 结构参数L对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of structure parameter L on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 稳态工作点参数Ub对系统阻尼特性的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Ub on system damping characteristics
    图 稳态工作点参数Ub对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Ub on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 控制参数Ki对系统同步特性的影响Fig. Influence of control parameter Ki on system synchronization characteristics
    图 控制参数Ki对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of control parameter Ki on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 稳态工作点参数Ug对系统同步特性的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Ug on system synchronization characteristics
    图 稳态工作点参数Ug对系统直流母线电压Udc的影响Fig. Influence of steady-state operating point parameter Ug on system DC bus voltage Udc
    图 不同控制参数Kp下的f和Udc动态Fig. f and Udc dynamics under different control parameters Kp
    图 不同结构参数C下的f和Udc动态Fig. f and Udc dynamics under different structural parameters C
    图 不同控制参数Dp下的f和Udc动态Fig. f and Udc dynamics under different control parameters Dp
    图 不同结构参数L下的f和Udc动态Fig. f and Udc dynamics under different structural parameters C
    图 不同控制参数Ki下的f和Udc动态Fig. f and Udc dynamics under different control parameters Ki
    表 1 Table 1
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引用本文

吴永斌,王素娥,熊连松,等.光储一体化并网发电系统的惯量阻尼机理分析[J].电力系统自动化. DOI:10.7500/AEPS20190308009.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-03-08
  • 最后修改日期:2020-01-18
  • 录用日期:2019-09-02
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