2020, 44(11):10-24. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200102005
Abstract:Blockchain technology has received extensive attention in the financial field due to the bitcoin system it supports. It has also gained some applications in the field of energy and power. This paper introduces the basic principle of blockchain, and summarizes four main characteristics of decentralization, immutability, scalability and distribution of blockchain technology. According to the difference between the served objects and managed objects, the application of blockchain technology in the power system environment is divided into three attributes （physical, financial, and social） and six functions （information security, monitoring and analysis, trading platforms, contract execution, intelligent decision-making and behavior management）. The problems and technical principles of various functions are analyzed, and a typical scenario is selected for each of the six functions. For large-scale system applications in the power system, two sets of blockchain architectures are proposed: smart dispatching system based on fog computing and side-chain structure, and carbon emission and green certificate trading system based on notary mechanism. Finally, this paper summarizes the bottlenecks faced by blockchain technology to be applied in the power system, and proposes some solutions.
2021, 45(5):30-38. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200403002
Abstract:The participation of demand response (DR) resources in the interaction of power grids enriches the means of power grid dispatching. However, due to the uncertainty of DR resources and the difficulty of direct control of individual interest, the transaction default probability of DR resources is higher than that of traditional power resources, which complicates the settlement and punishment mechanism. In order to effectively guide the demand-side resources to actively participate in response, a blockchain-based DR resource credit management method is proposed to reduce the risk of default, thereby improving the availability of DR for participating in scheduling. A DR resource transaction mechanism considering credit value in centralized transactions and bilateral transactions is established. And the smart contracts at each stage of the transaction are designed and deployed on the Ethereum test chain to explore the response effects of users under different credit values. The example shows that the proposed transaction method can effectively reduce the cost of DR resources, and the trustworthy users can obtain more benefits, thereby effectively guiding DR resources to participate in market transactions from a long-term perspective and maintaining the stable development of DR resource transaction markets.
2021, 45(5):18-29. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200715003
Abstract:Blockchain is expected to play an important role in the energy system under the development trend of cross-regional interconnection, multi-energy complementarity and data interflow in the energy industry. First, starting from the value of blockchain, this paper presents the application value of blockchain in the energy industry and discusses the applicability of public blockchain, consortium blockchain and private blockchain in the energy industry. Four application scenarios and the corresponding applications of blockchain in the energy industry are summarized. Then, this paper introduces the mainstream energy blockchain platform, and expounds the differences of blockchain platforms in technology architecture. Finally, some suggestions on the development of energy blockchain are put forward.
2021, 45(9):19-27. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200508002
Abstract:In the open electricity sales side market, the prosumers with the dual characteristics of electricity production and consumption implement flexible peer-to-peer transactions. As single-chain blockchains cannot simultaneously satisfy the network security check and decentralization of prosumer transactions, a double-chain blockchain for coupling operation of the transaction chain and the power chain and its peer-to-peer transaction decision model are proposed. The peer-to-peer transactions of prosumers are achieved based on their independent game through the trading chain (public chain) to maximize their respective economic interests in the market. The security check and adjustment of the market transaction scheme are achieved through the power chain (alliance chain) with the constraint of power flow. Based on the Ethereum blockchain development platform, the simulation scenarios for peer-to-peer transactions with IEEE 14-bus distribution network are implemented. The simulation results show that the designed double-chain blockchain has higher transaction processing efficiency and performance than single-chain blockchain, which can achieve autonomous peer-to-peer transaction of prosumers and ensure the safe and automatic execution of the transaction scheme.
2021, 45(9):10-18. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200903002
Abstract:With the development of the auxiliary service market of frequency regulation, the problem that the user side can not fully participate in the frequency regulation market has become increasingly prominent, which is manifested in two aspects: frequency regulation service and frequency regulation compensation cost-sharing. Firstly, in combination with the market environment, this paper puts forward the measures that the consumers with high energy consumption are given high priority on participation in the frequency regulation market, and analyzes the feasibility. Combined with the cross-chain transaction scheme of blockchain technology, the framework of frequency regulation service transaction is constructed, and the multi-chain structure is constructed according to the market entities. In the quotation clearing model of the frequency regulation service, the potential risk to the market from the frequency regulation performance of consumers with high energy consumption is considered; the on-chain transaction process of the frequency regulation market based on chain code is designed, which breaks the value and data barriers between multiple blockchains in the frequency regulation market. Finally, by simulating the transaction process, the frequency regulation service transaction from clearing to settlement can be completed within a day, which improves the efficiency and transparency of the transaction.
2021, 45(12):1-10. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20200707004
Abstract:Establishing a carbon emission allowance trading market for electricity and carrying out the carbon emission allowance trading is one of the optional ways to promote China’s low-carbon goals. Starting from the electricity market, the carbon emission allowance trading market is considered as the derivative market of the electricity market. A study is conducted on the mechanism of the independent carbon emission allowance trading market based on the power imbalance, and the rules of carbon emission allowance responsibility coupled with the electricity trading are proposed. Combined with the blockchain technology, the “bilateral” trading market of the carbon emission allowance trading mechanism is introduced, and the “multi-to-multi” matching and clearing mode of multi-round carbon emission allowance trading is constructed. Secondly, according to the technical characteristics of the blockchain, the application of carbon emission allowance trading is designed, and the model of “bilateral” carbon emission allowance trading mechanism is proposed. Finally, the feasibility of the carbon emission allowance trading mechanism proposed in this paper is verified through calculation examples.
2021, 45(12):11-19. DOI: 10.7500/AEPS20201022009
Abstract:Due to small unit capacity, scattered distribution and diverse ownership of distributed sources and storage resources on the user side, it is difficult to be directly regulated by existing power grid dispatching systems. In order to make effective use of user-side ubiquitous resources at the aggregation layer, this paper designs and implements an energy network blockchain (ENBC) platform, which aggregates distributed generation resources and load-side resources and coordinately optimizes and regulates them. The internal energy optimal dispatching method of the distributed virtual power plant based on Internet of Things and ENBC platform is further studied. The framework is designed from the aspects of participants, data structure, optimal scheduling, security check, value settlement, etc., and then the implementation method of user-side ubiquitous resource regulation for trusted transaction is proposed. Finally, the effectness of the system is verified by a practical case.